The triatomine bugs are obligatory haematophagous organisms that act as vectors of Chagas disease by transmitting the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Their feeding success is strongly related to salivary proteins that allow these insects to access blood by counteracting host haemostatic mechanisms. Proteomic studies were performed on saliva from the Amazonian triatomine bugs: Rhodnius brethesi and R. robustus, species epidemiologically relevant in the transmission of T. cruzi. Initially, salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The average number of spots of the R. brethesi and R. robustus saliva samples were 129 and 135, respectively. The 2-DE profiles were very similar between the two species. Identification of spots by peptide mass fingerprinting afforded limited efficiency, since very few species-specific salivary protein sequences are available in public sequence databases. Therefore, peptide fragmentation and de novo sequencing using a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer were applied for similarity-driven identifications which generated very positive results. The data revealed mainly lipocalin-like proteins which promote blood feeding of these insects. The redundancy of saliva sequence identification suggested multiple isoforms caused by gene duplication followed by gene modification and/or post-translational modifications. In the first experimental assay, these proteins were predominantly phosphorylated, suggesting functional phosphoregulation of the lipocalins.