Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

Bidragets oversatte titel: Ændringer i maksimal stagning under og efter moderat højdetræning i elite langrendsløbere

Martina Höög, Kurt Jensen, Sarah Willis, Hans-Christer Holmberg

Publikation: Bidrag til bog/antologi/rapport/konference-proceedingKonferencebidrag i proceedingsForskningpeer review

Resumé

INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the Olympic cross-country ski competitions will be held in Sochi, Russia at approximately 1500m altitude. Even moderate altitude can have negative effects on performance in highly trained endurance athletes and individuals may adapt and react differently to altitude exposure [1]. Different skiing techniques (such as double poling) may also be affected by altitude due to the involvement of the upper body. Thus, the purpose of our study was to evaluate changes in double poling performance during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers.
METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the double poling technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20 days at 1500m altitude (ALT1 and ALT2), and 10 days after altitude at sea level (NORM2). A progressive “all out” double pooling test consisted of 4-7 min of exercise with an increase in first speed and then grade every minute until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during maximal exercise and VO2peak was taken as the highest VO2 during exercise. Maximal blood lactate concentration was measured between 1 and 2 min after termination. Average power was calculated from roller ski friction and transported body mass against gravity [2].
RESULTS: At NORM1, the skiers’ body mass was 73.9±11.6kg and VO2peak 200±21ml/min/kg0.73. Blood lactate accumulation after maximal exercise was 9.6±1.7mmol/l and showed no difference between conditions (P>0.05). No change in VO2peak was seen between NORM1 and NORM2. The VO2peak increased 5.6% at NORM2 compared to ALT1 and ALT2 (P<0.05). In contrast, the average maximal power output at NORM1 (254±69W) increased 6.8% at ALT2 and NORM2 (P<0.05). No differences were found between NORM2 and ALT1 and ALT2.
DISCUSSION: The current study demonstrated that in a group of elite skiers training at moderate altitude corresponding to 1500m, maximal double poling power is maintained and even increased during altitude. Furthermore, VO2peak was also increased when returning to sea level. These findings suggest that the anaerobic energy system is more involved in the double poling technique while at altitude than after return to sea level. However, this could not be confirmed by higher maximal blood lactate concentrations after exercise while at moderate altitude.
CONCLUSION: Maximal double poling exercise in highly trained elite skiers seems to be less affected by moderate altitude indicating a greater dependence of the anaerobic energy system during upper body exercise.

REFERENCES
1. Chapman, R.F., et al Journal of applied physiology, 1998. 85: p. 1448-1456.
2. Ainegren, M., et al . Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Titel6th International congres on Science and Skiing
RedaktørerEric Müller
Antal sider1
Udgivelses stedSaltzburg
ForlagDepartment of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria
Publikationsdato12. dec. 2013
Sider95
ISBN (Elektronisk)978-3-200-03417-4
StatusUdgivet - 12. dec. 2013
Begivenhed6th International Congress on Science and Skiing - St. Christoph am Arlberg, Østrig
Varighed: 14. dec. 201319. dec. 2013

Konference

Konference6th International Congress on Science and Skiing
LandØstrig
BySt. Christoph am Arlberg
Periode14/12/201319/12/2013

Citer dette

Höög, M., Jensen, K., Willis, S., & Holmberg, H-C. (2013). Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers. I E. Müller (red.), 6th International congres on Science and Skiing (s. 95). Saltzburg: Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria .
Höög, Martina ; Jensen, Kurt ; Willis, Sarah ; Holmberg, Hans-Christer. / Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers. 6th International congres on Science and Skiing. red. / Eric Müller. Saltzburg : Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria , 2013. s. 95
@inproceedings{92641d577e474fd295452a0e2f6172df,
title = "Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the Olympic cross-country ski competitions will be held in Sochi, Russia at approximately 1500m altitude. Even moderate altitude can have negative effects on performance in highly trained endurance athletes and individuals may adapt and react differently to altitude exposure [1]. Different skiing techniques (such as double poling) may also be affected by altitude due to the involvement of the upper body. Thus, the purpose of our study was to evaluate changes in double poling performance during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers.METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the double poling technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20 days at 1500m altitude (ALT1 and ALT2), and 10 days after altitude at sea level (NORM2). A progressive “all out” double pooling test consisted of 4-7 min of exercise with an increase in first speed and then grade every minute until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during maximal exercise and VO2peak was taken as the highest VO2 during exercise. Maximal blood lactate concentration was measured between 1 and 2 min after termination. Average power was calculated from roller ski friction and transported body mass against gravity [2]. RESULTS: At NORM1, the skiers’ body mass was 73.9±11.6kg and VO2peak 200±21ml/min/kg0.73. Blood lactate accumulation after maximal exercise was 9.6±1.7mmol/l and showed no difference between conditions (P>0.05). No change in VO2peak was seen between NORM1 and NORM2. The VO2peak increased 5.6{\%} at NORM2 compared to ALT1 and ALT2 (P<0.05). In contrast, the average maximal power output at NORM1 (254±69W) increased 6.8{\%} at ALT2 and NORM2 (P<0.05). No differences were found between NORM2 and ALT1 and ALT2.DISCUSSION: The current study demonstrated that in a group of elite skiers training at moderate altitude corresponding to 1500m, maximal double poling power is maintained and even increased during altitude. Furthermore, VO2peak was also increased when returning to sea level. These findings suggest that the anaerobic energy system is more involved in the double poling technique while at altitude than after return to sea level. However, this could not be confirmed by higher maximal blood lactate concentrations after exercise while at moderate altitude. CONCLUSION: Maximal double poling exercise in highly trained elite skiers seems to be less affected by moderate altitude indicating a greater dependence of the anaerobic energy system during upper body exercise. REFERENCES1. Chapman, R.F., et al Journal of applied physiology, 1998. 85: p. 1448-1456.2. Ainegren, M., et al . Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400.",
author = "Martina H{\"o}{\"o}g and Kurt Jensen and Sarah Willis and Hans-Christer Holmberg",
year = "2013",
month = "12",
day = "12",
language = "English",
pages = "95",
editor = "Eric M{\"u}ller",
booktitle = "6th International congres on Science and Skiing",
publisher = "Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria",

}

Höög, M, Jensen, K, Willis, S & Holmberg, H-C 2013, Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers. i E Müller (red.), 6th International congres on Science and Skiing. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria , Saltzburg, s. 95, 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing, St. Christoph am Arlberg, Østrig, 14/12/2013.

Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers. / Höög, Martina; Jensen, Kurt; Willis, Sarah; Holmberg, Hans-Christer.

6th International congres on Science and Skiing. red. / Eric Müller. Saltzburg : Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria , 2013. s. 95.

Publikation: Bidrag til bog/antologi/rapport/konference-proceedingKonferencebidrag i proceedingsForskningpeer review

TY - GEN

T1 - Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

AU - Höög, Martina

AU - Jensen, Kurt

AU - Willis, Sarah

AU - Holmberg, Hans-Christer

PY - 2013/12/12

Y1 - 2013/12/12

N2 - INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the Olympic cross-country ski competitions will be held in Sochi, Russia at approximately 1500m altitude. Even moderate altitude can have negative effects on performance in highly trained endurance athletes and individuals may adapt and react differently to altitude exposure [1]. Different skiing techniques (such as double poling) may also be affected by altitude due to the involvement of the upper body. Thus, the purpose of our study was to evaluate changes in double poling performance during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers.METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the double poling technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20 days at 1500m altitude (ALT1 and ALT2), and 10 days after altitude at sea level (NORM2). A progressive “all out” double pooling test consisted of 4-7 min of exercise with an increase in first speed and then grade every minute until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during maximal exercise and VO2peak was taken as the highest VO2 during exercise. Maximal blood lactate concentration was measured between 1 and 2 min after termination. Average power was calculated from roller ski friction and transported body mass against gravity [2]. RESULTS: At NORM1, the skiers’ body mass was 73.9±11.6kg and VO2peak 200±21ml/min/kg0.73. Blood lactate accumulation after maximal exercise was 9.6±1.7mmol/l and showed no difference between conditions (P>0.05). No change in VO2peak was seen between NORM1 and NORM2. The VO2peak increased 5.6% at NORM2 compared to ALT1 and ALT2 (P<0.05). In contrast, the average maximal power output at NORM1 (254±69W) increased 6.8% at ALT2 and NORM2 (P<0.05). No differences were found between NORM2 and ALT1 and ALT2.DISCUSSION: The current study demonstrated that in a group of elite skiers training at moderate altitude corresponding to 1500m, maximal double poling power is maintained and even increased during altitude. Furthermore, VO2peak was also increased when returning to sea level. These findings suggest that the anaerobic energy system is more involved in the double poling technique while at altitude than after return to sea level. However, this could not be confirmed by higher maximal blood lactate concentrations after exercise while at moderate altitude. CONCLUSION: Maximal double poling exercise in highly trained elite skiers seems to be less affected by moderate altitude indicating a greater dependence of the anaerobic energy system during upper body exercise. REFERENCES1. Chapman, R.F., et al Journal of applied physiology, 1998. 85: p. 1448-1456.2. Ainegren, M., et al . Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400.

AB - INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the Olympic cross-country ski competitions will be held in Sochi, Russia at approximately 1500m altitude. Even moderate altitude can have negative effects on performance in highly trained endurance athletes and individuals may adapt and react differently to altitude exposure [1]. Different skiing techniques (such as double poling) may also be affected by altitude due to the involvement of the upper body. Thus, the purpose of our study was to evaluate changes in double poling performance during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers.METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the double poling technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20 days at 1500m altitude (ALT1 and ALT2), and 10 days after altitude at sea level (NORM2). A progressive “all out” double pooling test consisted of 4-7 min of exercise with an increase in first speed and then grade every minute until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during maximal exercise and VO2peak was taken as the highest VO2 during exercise. Maximal blood lactate concentration was measured between 1 and 2 min after termination. Average power was calculated from roller ski friction and transported body mass against gravity [2]. RESULTS: At NORM1, the skiers’ body mass was 73.9±11.6kg and VO2peak 200±21ml/min/kg0.73. Blood lactate accumulation after maximal exercise was 9.6±1.7mmol/l and showed no difference between conditions (P>0.05). No change in VO2peak was seen between NORM1 and NORM2. The VO2peak increased 5.6% at NORM2 compared to ALT1 and ALT2 (P<0.05). In contrast, the average maximal power output at NORM1 (254±69W) increased 6.8% at ALT2 and NORM2 (P<0.05). No differences were found between NORM2 and ALT1 and ALT2.DISCUSSION: The current study demonstrated that in a group of elite skiers training at moderate altitude corresponding to 1500m, maximal double poling power is maintained and even increased during altitude. Furthermore, VO2peak was also increased when returning to sea level. These findings suggest that the anaerobic energy system is more involved in the double poling technique while at altitude than after return to sea level. However, this could not be confirmed by higher maximal blood lactate concentrations after exercise while at moderate altitude. CONCLUSION: Maximal double poling exercise in highly trained elite skiers seems to be less affected by moderate altitude indicating a greater dependence of the anaerobic energy system during upper body exercise. REFERENCES1. Chapman, R.F., et al Journal of applied physiology, 1998. 85: p. 1448-1456.2. Ainegren, M., et al . Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400.

M3 - Article in proceedings

SP - 95

BT - 6th International congres on Science and Skiing

A2 - Müller, Eric

PB - Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria

CY - Saltzburg

ER -

Höög M, Jensen K, Willis S, Holmberg H-C. Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers. I Müller E, red., 6th International congres on Science and Skiing. Saltzburg: Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria . 2013. s. 95